Thursday, May 21, 2020

Snow Goose Overpopulation - 1901 Words

The Overpopulation of the Snow Goose in North America Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore available research on the overpopulation of the Snow Goose on the North American continent. The snow goose has been rising in population since the middle of the century and has been escalating so much it is destroying their natural habitat. Wildlife managers have just recently begun to implement strategies to combat this problem. Mainly through the use of hunters the managers are trying to curb the population growth. Introduction There are three main species of Snow Goose of primary concern. The Lesser Snow Goose (LSGO) is the must abundant and at the same time most troublesome. Ross Goose (ROGO) is very similar to the Lesser†¦show more content†¦Hunting of the Greater Snow Goose was banned in the us from 1931-75 (Abraham and Jeffries 1998). Hunting was not allowed to promote population numbers, and once started in 1975 did not have a high harvest. The LSGO and ROGO starting in the middle of the 60s and continually have extended their nesting range south into less extreme climate (Abraham and Jeffries 1998). It has also been suggested that since birds are now living longer the older adults are now leading the less wary young to safer sites and out of hunters range (Ingstrup 1998). Ingstrup also suggests that the artic may be warming and as Abraham and Jeffries cited there has been shown a correlation between the snow melt and survival of nesting birds and their young. According to Hodge the annual kill by hunters in 1970 neared 40% but in 1994 the rate had dropped to less than 8%. Thus allowing a great deal of the adult population to return to nesting sites in the spring. Impact on habitat The snow geese still nest in a primarily salt marsh environment. The geese have a detrimental feeding behavior in which they pull up the marsh grass by the roots. This behavior is know as grubbing and when done in mass quantities can destroy whole marshes for decades. A project known as the Hudson Bay Project: Ecosystem Studies and Conservation of Coastal Arctic Tundra has done extensive research ontoShow MoreRelated Snow Goose Overpopulation Essay1882 Words   |  8 Pages The Overpopulation of the Snow Goose in North America Abstract nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The purpose of this paper is to explore available research on the overpopulation of the Snow Goose on the North American continent. The snow goose has been rising in population since the middle of the century and has been escalating so much it is destroying their natural habitat. Wildlife managers have just recently begun to implement strategies to combat this problem. Mainly through the use of hunters the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Movie Review Taken - 1143 Words

The movie I chose to analyze for my assignment is ‘Taken’. The movie is a 2008 English-language French action thriller film directed by Pierre Morel, and written by Luc Besson and Robert Kamen. The music is composed by Nathaniel Mechaly. Bryan Mills, who is a former U.S. Central Intelligence Agency operative, tries to have a closer relationship with his daughter, Kim, who lives with her mother and stepfather. Later on Kim asks Bryan for permission to travel to Paris with her friend Amanda. Bryan doesn t want the two girls traveling alone, but finally agrees to let them. Bryan then gives Kim and international cellphone before going to the airport. Once they arrive at the airport, Bryan finds out that Kim lied to him about going to Paris, and instead Kim and her friend are going to follow a band during their European tour. Once Kim and Amanda arrive in Paris, they meet a guy who is a scout for a kidnapping gang. The guy follows them to the place where they are staying. Wh en Kim is talking to Bryan on the phone in the bathroom, Kim sees Amanda being kidnapped by a group of guys. Bryan tells Kim to go to the nearest room and hide under a bed. He tells Kim when the men find her, to shout out what they look like. Once the intruders find her, she yells out their physical appearance before her phone is found. Bryan then tells the guy that the group has just this one time to release his daughter, and if they don’t, he is going to travel to Europe and find them and kill them.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Review and Analysis of the Movie Taken785 Words   |  4 Pagesto describe the movie Taken. If you desire a high dose of adrenaline to quench your movie watching thirst, and if you are ready to take a super-charged ride to the action filled city of Paris, France, then this is a must see movie for you. Taken, not for the faint of heart, will keep you on the edge of your seat for the entire ninety-one minutes. Be prepared to have the popcorn container pried from your hand when the credits start to roll on this high energy thriller. Taken premiered in FranceRead MoreSummary Of The Help 1012 Words   |  5 PagesPulg, Claudia. â€Å"‘The Help’: It’s Fine Work All Around.† USA Today. Web. 9 Aug (2011) . In her review, Claudia was basically focused on how the movie was based on racism and that in this time in the 1960’s that the movie would not be a great movie to see. Claudia, states this statement because of all issues that were going on with the civil rights at the time and how their services as maids were taken for granted. While in the process the women who were maids went to meet with Sly to them theirRead MoreDid Departures Deserve the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar764 Words   |  3 PagesJohn McCarthy agree that Departures contains a traditional plot line and a slightly humorous twist, Kennicott’s review is more developed, identifying some of the underlying points of the film while McCarthy’s review was rather vague and judgmental. Both reviews differ greatly in opinion. They did, however, agree in some areas of the film. Comparing the two, it is seen that both reviews found the film to be traditional. It was simple, straightforward, and predictable. Kennicott wrote, â€Å"The weaknessRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Hot Fuzz933 Words   |  4 PagesJokes are jokes for a reason. They aren’t meant to be taken seriously. Comedic films have provided entertainment to the people of the world for years. They are the go-to method form of comic relief and is valued greatly in the world. A great example of this would be the movie, Hot Fuzz. Directed by Edgar Wright and released on March 14, 2007, Hot Fuzz is about a London police officer, Nicholas Angel, who is very good at his job and is â€Å"too good† for London, and is reassigned to a quiet town calledRead MoreFinal Film Critique Paper: Hangover Part Iii1014 Words   |  5 PagesCritique: Hangover Part III I have chosen the Hangover 3, directed by Todd Phillips, to critique; it seems to be a very humorous movie from just watching this one clip. This movie is in the genre of comedy, it is being called the epic final of the â€Å"Wolf Pack†. Since the Hangover III does not get released until May 23, 2013 I will base my paper on the movie clip, I my critique I will attempt to explain the uses of sound cinematography used in the clip that I have viewed, and how well the actorsRead MoreToy Story 3 Review1135 Words   |  5 Pagesthrown away. As Andy looks over all of his old toys, he decides to put them in a garbage bag and keep them in the attic. He however, decides to take Woody, his oldest friend, to school with him. However, things go awry when the toys are accidentally taken to the curb to be thrown out. Thinking that they have been abandoned, they decide to stowaway in a donation box headed to Sunnyside Daycare. At first it seems like a dream come true for a toy. A place where children come and play with toys everydayRead MoreEssay on A Review for â€Å"The Lion King†1188 Words   |  5 Pagespossibly be so far off base in her review of the Disney movie â€Å"The Lion King†. Margaret Lazarus has taken a movie made for the entertainment of children and turned it into something that is racist, sexist and stereotypes gender roles. She uses many personal arguments to review the movie but offers few solutions. The author is well organized but she lacks alternate points of view and does not use adequate sources. Lazarus utilizes the statement at the end of her review that â€Å"the Disney Magic entrancedRead MorePrecious Based on the Novel Push by Saphire Analysis1368 Words   |  6 PagesIntracultural Communications Professor Brook Film Analysis on 2009’s â€Å"Precious† Analyzing a dynamic film like the 2009 â€Å"Precious† is difficult. The movie got a lot of praise for the acting and the story that was portrayed but it also got a lot of heat from the race that was portrayed in the movie. African Americans nationwide said the movie made their African American ghettos into a sexually incest ridden, classless society and didn’t properly show any of the positive attributes that come fromRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Lion1366 Words   |  6 Pageswho were so happy to see him. The Oscar nominee movie, Lion, is a film based on home and identity. The film is about a boy who gets lost from his birth home and family and later on during his life he becomes obsessed with tracking down his birth family. Throughout the movie, they show us how much reconnecting with his real family means to Saroo, yet being close and connected with his adoptive parents is also very important to him. During the movie, Saroo states â€Å"Do you have any idea what it’s likeRead MoreThe Butterfly Effect, and A Sound of Thunder by Ray Bradbury1138 Words   |  5 PagesKiller, a serial Killer, now of nine women, has killed John’s mother and Frank’s wife, Julia Sullivan. (O’Connel, David. 2008.) For the rest of the movie, John and Frank race against time to figure out who the Nightingale Killer is and to prevent him from ever committing murder. Even though the changes to the past caused many negative outcomes, the movie ended positively. The Butterfly Effect, written and directed by Eric Bress and Mackye Gruber, is an example of making changes to the past that could

European Financial Aspects Free Essays

Forplay, Inc. , is about to become a reality on the European market. Our company will base its distribution on strategic alliances with local mail order companies, while starting a global ad campaign targeted to an audience age 18 to 45. We will write a custom essay sample on European Financial Aspects or any similar topic only for you Order Now While we don†t expect too many difficulties in converting and repatriating our funds, the financial aspects of this operation will still have to face the upcoming European monetary integration. The new currency — the euro – could significantly impact the way international business is conducted. In January 1996, Andersen Consulting surveyed 169 companies throughout the European Union, finding that â€Å"nearly three quarters felt that deeper integration in the form of European monetary union (EMU) would enhance the single market and bring further benefits — such as a more stable currency, lower inflation, lower interest rates, cost savings, efficiency improvements, a more competitive European Union (EU), and increased foreign investment. † There are benefits for companies outside the EU too. Business with Europe will be easier, and investment choices simplified through increased visibility and comparability of prices. Medium- and small-sized companies like Forplay, Inc. , will have less trouble opening a bridgehead into an enlarged unified market, with fewer financial risks. However, there are also many uncertainties. For example, which countries will join? Member states must meet criteria for economic convergence, and it is not certain how strictly these criteria will be enforced. Sluggish economic performance is giving finance ministers little room to maneuver. In some countries, notably the United Kingdom, a significant portion of the political establishment is hostile to the whole process, while in other countries, notably Germany, there is a reluctance to relinquish a strong national currency. Adjustments for the new currency must be made between the start of 1999 and the start of 2002. As a business, we must begin planning now to minimize the cost of changing our information systems and administrative operations and address the legal issues. All software implementations will have to be consistent with the changeover needs, so decisions made in the IT field will be of paramount importance. The migration to the euro will be of concern to risk managers in the world’s major banks. Long term, there are many inherent advantages to EMU for controlling financial risk, although there is a chance of â€Å"backing the wrong horse† by adopting a technical solution that is rapidly made obsolete by the market, technological advances, or unexpected legislation. In the short term, uncertainty and market volatility mean increased risk. According to Bengt Bengtsson, SAS Institute European product manager for risk management solutions, â€Å"Companies should take this opportunity to review and update their treasury operations, foreign exchange, and interest rate management. Flexibility in risk controlling systems and adequate hedging mechanisms will be vital. Liquidity risk will also come high on the agenda as new products and funding possibilities (bonds, for example) become available in the euro. One of the keys to success will be the separation of risk controlling functions from day-to-day trading activities through a risk warehouse strategy. † For a while at least, Forplay, Inc. will have to operate some form of dual accounting, with consequent additional burdens on our corporate chief financial officers (CFOs). In the meantime, CFOs will need maximum flexibility within their ledger accounting systems and their financial consolidation and reporting systems, so they should take advantage of the introduction of the euro to review both. Two types of organizations face challenges,† says Richard King, SAS Institute European product marketing coordinator. â€Å"The first is those with more than one type of transactional ledger system. They will need to consolidate and report in two currencies, based on data from several incompatible sources. Consequently they will need a solution that allows them to look at all relevant dimensions from any perspective, instantly. â€Å"The second is any organization that has standardized on a single type of transactional ledger system but nevertheless lacks flexibility when it comes to financial reporting,† adds King. CFO Vision from SAS Institute, which supports all ledger systems, gives full flexibility in reporting (including multiple currencies concurrently) while protecting existing investments. For us as marketers, the transition to the Euro also raises awkward issues that may seem insoluble to anyone exporting to the EU. For example, should prices be expressed in euros, national currencies, or both? In addition, even though our prices are extremely competitive, for many products there is a marked difference in pricing policies within different EU countries. With the introduction of the euro, prices will be more transparent and such differences more difficult to maintain. Forplay, Inc. should therefore be investing in market research and database marketing to formulate pricing and marketing strategies now to avoid loss of market share and secure the benefits of operating in a single market. Preparation will mean everything as further developments in the deployment of the euro unfold. A keen understanding of current systems, a strong business plan, and flexible technology will mean continued business success — in any language. How to cite European Financial Aspects, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Craigs Case Essays - , Term Papers, Research Papers

The Craig's Case While reading this case I couldn?t believe how similar Craig?s problem was to my own from couple years ago. I tried to recall all the facts from my own experience and compare them to Craig?s. Even though I never had a steady job and I worked only couple of summers, I am pretty sure that many people had experience like this at one point in their careers. Every person in the world is different, and I believe that each person would behave differently in this case. To be fair maybe the outcome would be the same in some instances, but the decision process would be unique to every individual. This is where ethics come into the play, according to this term everyone should act the same in any given situation. Craig is facing very serious decision, just like in Shakespeare?s Hamlet ? to be or not to be? He is to choose between his physical well being and his conscience. According to Hobbes, in human?s nature is to be egoist, and one should always look out for one?s best interest, in this case keep the job and graduate from college. On the other side there are many stakeholders depending on the decision he will make, and according to the definition of ethics, it is not about me, it is about others. Clearly, consistently with the definition Craig is not facing a dilemma but a definite choice ? to speak out for himself and the customers that are depending on his decision. Craig must not sign the evaluation sheet and must do the only right and ethical thing. He must take this issue to the top management and complain about the wrongfulness of the previous actions of his superiors. If he is threatened with his tuition reimbursement and even if his job is on the line, he must proceed with his int entions and go to the authorities that are responsible for such cases. Craig?s duties and obligations in this case are numerous. According to the text, there are seven basic duties for good and bad conduct. One must keep explicit and implicit promises, where Craig must keep promises given to himself, company, and his customers. For example he must keep the implicit promise given to the customers where he is to do what is in his power to protect their best interest. One must make sure that the goods are distributed justly, where in this case only a half dozen out of hundreds have been acted upon. One must not harm others, where Craig by not acting immediately is harming some policyholders who can not afford other means of care or whatever the policy stated in the first place. (Trunfio, 28-29) There are many moral common sense principles that are addressed and violated in this case. The most obvious one would be lawfulness, where is stated that the laws must be obeyed, and clearly in this instance it is not so. Also, Human worth principle is violated, where his manager is evidently harming Craig. (Trunfio, 24) Craig?s manager Nancy, deliberately or not, is not respecting him as a human being and is pushing him to do what he is told, not what is right and legal. My opinion is that Craig?s boss Nancy knows the situation, and is deliberately transferring the responsibility on Craig?s shoulders. These are only couple of moral principles being addressed in this case. The fact that the actions of this firm are not legal is probably enough for Craig to report this case to the authorities. If he doesn?t act immediately many clients of the firm will be damaged. Furthermore this could lead to a lawsuit which could damage the wellbeing of many employees of the firm as well as their agents all over the United States. If he ignores the issue, and I must add that this is not just a minor flaw or mistake but illegal act that will eventually be discovered by the authorities, the results would be the same, he would loose his scholarship and his job and he would possibly be held legally accountable for not acting upon these matters. This fact should be an eye opener for Craig, in sense that

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Post Modern Style of Mass Communication Essay Example

Post Modern Style of Mass Communication Essay Example Post Modern Style of Mass Communication Essay Post Modern Style of Mass Communication Essay This paper discusses about the changing styles of mass communication with the advancement of technology. The paper traces the evolution of mass media from primitive times to the ultramodern techno savvy modern media of mass communication along with the progression of stylistics of presentation, language, content. For the sake of convenience the history of mass media is divided into five stages viz. Pre-printing media, Print media, Radio Films, Television Ultramodern Media. All these media have developed their own style of communication with masses and technology was instrumental for this change. Prologue Communication is an inevitable aspect of life. And each living being has its own style of communication. Human communication is the most complex out of all these communications. Technology added to it made it more effective, rapid, and continuous with the wide reach. Development of language was the most essential factor of human civilisation. Certainly language proves to be an important medium of human communication. Primitive civilisations had developed the techniques to communicate to the large number of people but those techniques were fundamentally the techniques of group communication, till the invention of printing technology. Printing technology was responsible to start the new genus of communication titled mass communication. Experiments on sound and transmission of sound waves from one corner of the world to another opened the new horizons to mass communication. These gradual progressions helped the mankind to evolve with new civilisation and life style which we name as information era. It is really interesting to plot and study the graph of technological development of mass communication and its co-relation with the changing styles of communication. Hence the author has selected this topic for her paper presentation. The word Style is defined in various ways. The dictionary meaning is as follows: Style: i. A kind or sort especially in regard to appearance and form; ii. A manner of writing or speaking or performing; iii. The distinctive manner of a person or school or period, especially in relation to painting, architecture, furniture, dress, etc. ; iv. The correct way of designating a person or thing; A superior quality or manner; v. A particular make, shape, or pattern[1] Similarly Stylistics[2] is defined as: The study of literary style. A branch of modern linguistics devoted to the detailed analysis of literary style, or of the linguistic choices made by speakers and writers in non-literary contexts. Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose (1996)[3]. The term Mass Communication is referred to as: A process in which professional communicators use media to disseminate message widely, rapidly and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large diverse audience in attempt to influence them in a variety of ways. 4] While reviewing the above definitions it is clear that without developing specific styles the professional communicators cannot communicate with masses. The author went through the history of media development and deduced some interesting result. For the sake of convenience she divided the time period into five slots: Pre-printing era, Printing era, Radio and Films era, Television Era and Post Modern Era of Interactive Media. The Th eme The medium is the integral part of communication process hence important element of media study. The medium plays key role in defining the form, pattern and style of the message to be communicated. With the evolution of human race the expression and communication styles vary along with the medium used. The brief account of the above phenomenon is given below. Pre-printing media: The folk media were the only means of group communication then. The genera of mass communication were missing in the society. These folk media were without any technology and the tradition of verbal communication was very strong. Therefore, the era gave first preference to language as it was the only mean of communication to allure the public. It helped in developing language as a basic and fundamental skill of human socio-psyche. Syntax, grammar, etymology, phonetics and other aspects of linguistics evolved. Vocabulary Synonyms, antonyms, idioms and phrases, spellings were the most important elements of this skill. Among all these folk media Drama is the most popular one even today. If it is considered as an example of group media without technology then the style followed by it is referred to as four dimensional style of communication. The stage where the drama is performed has length, breadth and height, the sets and the property used also have these three dimensions and the artistes performing too. The fourth dimension is the time. The artistes and the audience share the same time frame and hence the style of communication is the Four Dimensional one. All the live performances predominantly follow this style. Secondly the total body of the presenter speaks in the presentation along with the stage ambience, costume and drapery, the proximics among co-artistes and audience, usage of stage, set property, timing. The style of these media involves both the performers and the audience as it gives a wholistic approach. Print media: Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced what is regarded as an independent invention of movable type in Europe (see printing press), along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin and antimony – the same components still used today. 5] The print media are the language dependent media which further helped the languages to have concrete and formal development. The added the elegance and richness to the lingual expressions and literary glitterati. The style used in the lingual interaction was very flowery, well-designed, robust and more descriptive. Thus style was of slow, lengthy and specious. The print media used various genera for expression of thoughts, the style used was very serious as regard to precision and placement of words which was precisely non-personal in nature. The writer and the reader have one to one communication without sharing the time and meeting each other. The process of codification and concretization took place during this phase of time. Print media especially the newspaper took up a peculiar style for news writing which labeled as ‘Inverted Pyramid Style of Writing’. The most important point is the to be focused first and the least important at the last. This is exactly opposite of story telling where climax appears at the last. Inclusion of 5 ‘Ws’ who, where, when, what, why and 1 ‘H’ how are to be answered in the news and stick to them. Now with the profuse growth of electronic media i. e. News Channels the element ‘I’ means impact of the event is also mentioned in the news report. No verbosity and extra information is to be included is the golden rule followed by the news writers. Phrases like ‘information received from reliable resources or as reported by so and so news agency.. conflict between two racial groups etc. ’ are frequently in use. The news reports are the factual reports written with precision, clarity, accuracy and brevity with out any ambiguity and mystery. The first paragraph of the news is known as ‘intro’. The stalwarts of news reporting developed various styles of ‘intro’ e. g. bullet intro, summery intro, figurative intro, quotation intro, descriptive intro etc. [6] Radio Films: The media which took over next were truly technology based and definitely revolutionary in nature. The miracle to transmit voice from one part of the earth to another was possible due to the uninterrupted efforts of physicists like Graham Bell, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Morse, Herzt Marconi, etc. The first ever techno-based medium was audio and thus again verbal communication was stressed upon. Since it was advanced as regard to that time period it had elite, urban and sophisticated monotonous style. Only monologue, standardized, formal language symbols were in use although the radio professionals pretended to be colloquial in lingual usage. This was also a non-personal presentation based on phonetics, voice modulation, diction and clarity. Using microphone with best efficiency and efficacy with the time bound presentation, were the essential qualification and here starts the blending of technology in the mass communication process. Phrases like ‘due to some unavoidable reasons we are unable to. or this is So So station and you are listening to. you were just listening to . ’ were repeatedly in use creating monotony. Encompassing all the subjects to cater to all the listeners the radio had adopted its own style of presentation through audio images only. Thus the styled can be named as Audio Imagery style of presentation. Cinema: The first non personal audio-visual presentation with the help of motion pictures was magic of science and art together. A two dimensional medium projected on the screen had bigger images never seen before. The ideas that can be transformed into visual images are presented visually and the rest verbally. The words have less to narrate, hence language, for the first time in the history of communication became secondary in nature. Audio-visual presentation made the things easy to say but complex to present. Being the director’s medium, cinema soon became the most popular medium in the communication story. ‘Writing in motion’ is the most commonly used term for cinema. Every director molded the medium in his own style by camera angles, movements, dialogues, sequence, music and back-ground score, location and editing. Apart from the directorial style cinema has ‘Larger Than Life Audio Visual Imagery’ style which is found as common characteristic of the medium. A stereotypical example of Indian Cinema in 40s and 50s is – not showing the death of the character directly on the screen but symbolizing it with the extinguishing flame of the oil lamp due to the blow of storming wind coupled with a sad tune of string instrument like violin or sarangi and human scream. The visual image of the extinguished lamp and the audio of stormy wind plus sad tune and human scream together facilitate the director to tell the audience about the sad demise of the character in a very subtle and aesthetically strong way. This audio-visual feel is certainly more universal and general than that of literary feel thus named as ‘larger than life audio visual imagery’. Television: The small screen is the true modern mass communication medium. The medium which is available inside the home, can provide audio-visual information wrapped in the entertainment and most important, it is user friendly. The 24 hrs access to TV transmission is another main facet to make this medium the most popular one. Every strata of the society is hooked by this ‘idiot box’ for its never ending entertainment programmes. Although cinema and TV both are audio visual media the technology differs. Cinema is the projection medium, serious in nature. The audience have to make up their minds to go to the theatre, buy the tickets and sit in the chair for nearly 3 hrs with one interval of about 5 to 10 minutes, whereas, TV is the transmission medium, and very casual in nature. Apart from the technological differences, style of presentation is also different. Both the media are Two dimensional but the aspect ratio of the dimensions differ hence the style. TV is a close-up medium and it is also referred to as editor’s medium. It has a short lived effect and the approach of the audience towards this medium is very informal. Many a times TV programmes provide background score and nothing much. At the same time the ambience in which TV is watched is almost the same for each family as the decor is changed hardly once a year or so. Thus to avoid monotony external appearance of this medium more and more excitement is inserted in the content of the TV programmes. The efforts put in to create excitement do not prove to be successful every time leading it to non-serious, superficial presentation. The speed of transmission had added new dimension to the style of TV presentation. The private channels especially news channels using satellites for telecasting their programmes had developed BBC and American style of news presentation. Indian news-casters follow American style of news-casting which is predominantly focusing on shallow issues blown up disproportionately with unwanted repetitive details told in crispy language and loud tone. Purity of language and selection of words are at stake. For example to create excitement for hooking the audience and keeping them glued to the same news-channel, the words which were used only in emergency like breaking news, exclusive news are being used so often that these words lost their importance in the journalistic parlance. The style of entertainment channels is glossy, gaudy and extravagant visuals of rich and high class society with cliche scene and dialogues aimed to propagate consumerist approach of life style. Market forces and materialistic trends coated in the Indian culture, add to the formation of this strange style. Most of the time communication of the content is the prime concern and not the language, therefore, usage of words borrowed from English are frequently found in almost all the genera of Television programmes of vernacular languages. The presenters of Phone in Programmes and even news-casters use the language which apparently looks informal, friendly, colloquial giving a feel of closeness to the unknown listener or viewer but actually maintain distance. Thus the style can be referred to as ‘Pseudo-informative style’. Ultramodern Media: Internet and mobiles are the latest gadgets well equipped with modern technology. This technology is well accepted as Information Technology which makes all kinds of information gathering, processing and transporting feasible with finger stroke. The young generation who is proficient in using this technology is now living in information era. The information is flowing at the speed of light covering every nook and corner of the world. Both these gadgets are the interactive media and are responsible to make the whole society media dependent. The first and the most prominent impact of this post modern mass communication media is the changed life style. The people are well connected and well informed. Marshall McLuhan explained this phenomenon as ‘Information Explosion and Implosion. ’[7] The Internet is the most popular medium for information access as it provides the facility of random access and the individual can reach the desired topic within a very short span. The effect of this random access can be seen in the reference books also by the addition of subject index with bibliography. The impact of this facility can be observed as the people using it do not go through the whole text of the book or the webpage but directly reach the required point. It is certainly a time saving activity but one looses the opportunity to go through context and related information. The information is huge in quantity but in-depth knowledge and wisdom is in paucity. The language symbol usage is the at the minimal level as the visuals – graphics and animations are available in ready-to-use forms. The spellings like you, we, before, to, please, thank you are abbreviated to u, v, b4, 2 pl, tq and are so much in use that soon they will be seen in the formal correspondence as a regular feature. The usage of SMS is growing leaps and bounds and the users are habituated to express every thing into 160 characters only chopping off all the unnecessary alphabets. Use of emoticons for expressions [pic] = happy, [pic]= sad etc. is the latest style to use minimum symbols for maximum expression. To support the communication not only written words but also pictures, music and animated images are used in these multi media gadgets giving the opportunity to use all possible way to communicate with maximum delimitation. Thus this style can be referred to as ‘Delimiting Style’ of post modern communication. The Epilogue The inference of above discussion is put forward in brevity as The technology has deep and everlasting impact on the styles of communication especially mass communication. The style change is directly proportional to the change and advancement of technology. The mass communication in post modern era has turned out to be interactive communication in ‘Delimiting Style’ with usage of minimal language symbols in combination with audio and visual clips.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Put Together a Poetry Manuscript for Publication

How to Put Together a Poetry Manuscript for Publication Putting together a poetry manuscript to submit to contests or publishers is not a walk in the park. Expect it to take an hour or two a day over the span of a week, month, or even a year, depending on how much work you have, how polished the pieces are, and how much time you can afford to spend on the project.   Despite that, creating a poetry manuscript for publication is an important next step in a writers career. Heres a step-by-step guide on how to make this goal a reality. Step 1: Choose Your Poems Begin by typing (or printing from your computer files) all the poems you want to consider putting into your book, one per page (unless of course, the poem is longer than a single page). This is a chance to make any small revisions you want to make to individual poems so that you can concentrate on the shape of the book as a whole. Step 2: Plan the Book Size To get started, decide how big of a book you want to create- 20 to 30 pages for a typical chapbook, 50 or more for a full-length collection (more on exact page amounts later). You may well change your mind about this when you are actually selecting and ordering the poems, but this will give you a starting point. Step 3: Organize the Poems With the length of your book in mind, sift through all the pages you have typed or printed up, and put the poems into piles that you feel belong together in some way- a series of poems on related themes, a group of poems written using a particular form, or a chronological sequence of poems written in the voice of a single character. Step 4: Take a Step Back Let your piles sit at least overnight without thinking about them. Then pick up each pile and read through the poems, trying to see them as a reader and not as their author. If you know your poems well and find your eyes skipping ahead, read them out loud to yourself to make sure you take the time to listen to them. Step 5: Be Selective When you’ve read through a stack of poems, pull out any poems that no longer seem to fit in that particular pile or seem redundant, and put the poems you want to keep together in the order you want your readers to experience them. You may find yourself doing lots of reshuffling over time, moving poems from one stack into another, melding whole groups of poems together by combining stacks, or discovering new groupings that need to be separate and on their own. Don’t worry about it. You will likely come across new ideas for books or chapbooks and also change your mind a number of times before the poems settle into the shape of a finished book manuscript. Step 6: Take a Breather After you’ve pared down and reordered each pile of poems, let them sit again at least overnight. You can use this time to mull over your reading, listening for the poems that stand out in each stack and how they sound together. Pay attention to other poems that may have popped into your mind when you were reading a certain stack to see if you should add them or replace similar poems. Step 7: Reevaluate Book Length Think again about the length of the book you want to create. You may decide that one stack of related poems would make a good short chapbook. You may have a really large pile of poems that will all go together into a long collection. Or you may want to combine several of your piles to create sections within a full-length book. Step 8: Create an Actual Book Next, try actually making the manuscript into a book that you can live with and leaf through. Staple or tape your pages together put them into a three-ring notebook, or use your computer to print them out in book format. If you’re preparing an email or online submission, you may still want to print up the poems you’re considering- shuffling paper pages is easier than editing a computer file. If you have several long pieces, you may wish to lay everything out in a word processing document with the correct margins for the completed book size, to see how more exactly how many pages the collection will consume. For a typical 6-by-9-inch printed book, youll want the final page count to be divisible by four (include room for a title page, dedication page, table of contents, copyright page, and acknowledgments page in your count as well). For ebooks, the page count can be any number. If you want your document to look like a finished book when printed out, use your software to make mirror image pages when setting up your page size so that the left and right pages will face each other as they would when professionally bound, and add page numbers in a footer or header. That said, don’t think too much about typography or design at this point. You want simply to put the poems together so that you can read through the book and see how they interact in that order. Step 9: Choose a Title After you’ve decided on the length and general shape of your manuscript, choose a title for your collection. A title may have suggested itself during your sifting and ordering of the poems, or you may want to read through them again to find one- perhaps the title of a central poem, a phrase taken from one of the poems, or something completely different. Step 10: Proofread Carefully proofread your entire manuscript from beginning to end after you’ve put it in order. If you’ve spent a lot of time with the book, you may be tempted to give it only a cursory read-through. In this case, you need to set it aside for a few days or weeks so that when you come back to it you can pay close attention to each poem, each title, each line break, and each punctuation mark. You will likely find yourself making additional revisions to the poems at this point- don’t hold back, as this final reading may be your last chance to make changes before you send the book out into the world. Proofreading your own work is difficult- ask a friend, or two, to proofread the manuscript for you, and go through all their notes carefully. Fresh eyes will likely spot some errors that slid right by you but do not feel that you must accept every editorial change they may suggest. When in doubt about punctuation or line breaks, read the poem aloud. Step 11: Research Venues for Submission Next, it’s time to seek appropriate venues for submission. Use a list of poetry publishers or links to poetry contests to identify places you want to submit your manuscript. It’s important to read the poetry books they’ve published or the previous winners of their competitions in order to decide if you want them to publish your work. Targeting your submissions to publishers of like works can also save you time and money on submissions that would have been rejected for not being appropriate to their current catalog. Publishing is a business, and if a manuscript wouldnt fit in with others in the companys catalog, its marketing department wouldnt know what to do with it, regardless of its quality. Weed those publishers out before sending the manuscript anywhere. Keep notes on why a publisher is a good fit, to mention in your submission cover letter. Step 12: Apply! After you have selected a publisher or a contest, reread its guidelines and follow them exactly. Print a fresh copy of your manuscript in the format requested, use the submission form if there is one, and enclose the applicable reading fee. Try to let go of your manuscript after you’ve mailed it off- it may take a long time for you to get a response, and obsessing over one manuscript submission will only set you up for disappointment. It never hurts, however, to keep thinking about the order and title of your book and to submit it to other contests and publishers in the meantime (so long as the companies you’ve sent it to accept simultaneous submissions).

Friday, February 14, 2020

Common law and equity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Common law and equity - Essay Example Equity was developed in order to overcome the inadequacies of common law. Equitable remedies are available in a number of areas where common law is either incapable of providing justice or is not faultless in providing justice to the individuals. The main purpose of equity jurisdiction is to support the existing laws. Equity was developed to propose principles that are either ignored by common law or not formally accepted in that set of law. Moreover, equity proposes certain remedies that are unavailable in common law. In certain circumstance, common law decisions or remedies are insufficient to provide justice to the innocent (Hudson, 2009). For instance, in the matters involving mortgages, where the lenders are to a piece of land as a security of the loan granted, the principles in equity and common law greatly distinguish from each other. Let’s assume that Angelina grants a loan of $5,000 to Joseph, after considering a piece of land as a security that worth $8,000. Accordin g to the contract, the land in question would be legally transferred on the name of the lender (Angelina), on the terms that she would retransfer the land on Josephs name if he repays the loan in the specified time. If Joseph fails to repay the loan in the specified time, common law gives no entitlement to Joseph for the land that was conveyed and the duty to repay the loan still exists. However, equity practices such situations in a different and more reasonable manner. According to the rules of equity, Joseph would be given another chance to repay the loan in a new specified time. If Joseph still fails to repay, the land which was let for security will be sold and the loan will be repaid. The additional amount would be given to Joseph as it belongs to him. It is not just the matters of mortgages where equity provides a more reasonable and just decision but it also works better in many other areas. Equity and common law are not only different in terms of laws and